Author Archive


Adventurous Aesthetics

Younes Marxieu

Imagine if you will, being on your death bed, and standing around your bed, the Dreams given to you by life, the Ideas that you never acted on, the Talents, the Gifts, the Abilities that you never used… And there they are, standing around your bed, looking at you with large angry eyes saying ‘We came to you! And only you could have given us life! And now we must die with you forever…’ The only question is, if you died this very moment what will die with you? What dreams? What ideas? What talents? What greatness that you showed up to bring? Don’t allow fear of failure and the attractiveness of playing it safe in life to draw you in. You can’t get out of life alive you got to die to leave here. You have something special, you have greatness within you.

You were born phenomenal, listen to…

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Truth! 😥

ISLAM---World's Greatest Religion!

Interesting Article,Shared with me by a Friend……

I probably sound like one of those writers with novels claiming to have found a wondrous miracle that could be all yours for only $10.99. Just for the record, I’m not going to be one of those writers, tonight. Human relationships are complex as it is without throwing in a breakup. It can be a breakup with your friend, brother, daughter, husband, wife or business partner. Whichever one it is, breakups take time to heal. So for your eyes only, I will reveal the seven phases that a person may go through when a relationship ends. Get comfortable, and for those still hurting, have some tissues on standby.

From my own personal experiences, I believe that once you break up with your best friend or grandfather even, you are suddenly sucked into a circle, a whirlpool even, where you meet each of the seven…

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Arabic Literature (in English)

Well, perhaps this one was a bit morbid:

The “Five Before You Die” was a feature we ran back in the summer 2010; by now, there are now many more great Arabic books available in translation, but this remains a strong list from translators, authors, critics, and publishers.

Shakir Mustafa

Although he might not put it on his resume, Mustafa was perhaps the first supporter of this blog.  He teaches at Northeastern University, translates, and is the editor and translator of the excellent Contemporary Iraqi Fiction: An Anthology. His picks:

Mahmoud Saeed

Saeed is the acclaimed and award-winning author of Saddam City, among many…

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Remember when we were all in grade school and we were taught about space? Didn’t it sound amazing?

It sure did then… and sure does, even now. There are some crazy things going on in space that we are still discovering. With its seemingly endless landscape, space will always be something that we are studying. Here are some of the weirdest things we have seen while studying the sky.

1.) Massive Electric Currents

These currents have beens pied radiating from black holes. One has been spotted that is about 1.5 times the size of our whole Milky Way galaxy. That’s shocking!

2.) Pluto’s Ice

The temperature on the (former) planet Pluto is so low that the ice found on the planet is harder than most steel. You have the -390 degrees Fahrenheit to thank for that.

3.) Giant Stars

This is a comparison of our sun (which is massive by the way) to a newly discovered star called VY Canis Major (which is, how do I put it…much more massive). This star is so big that its collapse could have major implications for the entire universe.

4.) The Diamond Planet

This planet looks like it will be “forever.” Scientists recently happened upon a planet of diamond. Well, okay not the whole planet, but 1/3 of the planet is diamond which is good enough for me to deem it crazily interesting.

5.) Mercury’s Mickey

While scoping out what the planet Mercury is up to, scientists discovered a familiar Earthly site. It looks like there was a visitor to the planet, one Mr. Micky Mouse.

6.) Hypervelocity Stars

Shooting Stars aren’t actually stars. They are meteors shooting through the galaxy. BUT! There are such things as shooting stars. They travel millions of miles an hour and I hope we don’t come into contact with one any time soon.

7.) The Burning Ice Planet

This planet burns at 439 degrees Celsius, but the water molecules don’t melt or evaporate. They bone together to form what is known as, “hot ice.”

8.) A Giant Water Reservoir

This cloud is light years away but it holds roughly 140 trillion times the amount of water on Earth. Bring your swim trunks, kids!

9.) Dark Energy

Dark Energy accounts for 68% of the known universe and it is the catalyst for what is making the universe expand.

10.) Unicorns

The Trifid Nebula bares a resemblance to the mythical creature but in all actuality, it is not a unicorn. Sorry.

11.) An Almost Habitable Planet

This planet the was found near the planet of Burning Ice actually, doesn’t spin so it is uninhabitable on the side facing the its sun and the side away from its sun, but the areas in between are apparently habitable.

12.) A Giant Cloud

This is one of the largest known things, not just clouds, THINGS in the known universe. It is the Himiko Cloud and it is over half the size of our galaxy. I hope it doesn’t bring rain with it.

13.) A Cold Star

Most stars are known for being blazing hot, but this star that has been found is actually not as hot as YOU! That’s right, you are hotter than a star. Our body temperature is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, stars have been found that are only 89 degrees.

14.) The Large Quasar Goup

What is scary about this Large Quasar Group isn’t only its size (40x bigger than the Milky Way), it is that it breaks the laws of physics as we know it.

15.) Dark Matter

27% of the visible universe is the mysterious Dark Matter. Spooky right?

16.) Fast Moving Black Holes

These collapsed stars are hurling themselves through the universe eating up whatever matter or light they can. Not only do they move at speeds in the millions of miles per hour, but once they consume something, their direction changes. We could be on the verge of a catastrophic disaster and we wouldn’t even see it coming due to the unpredictable nature of these black holes.

Most of these facts are pretty far out… Literally. You may not not just what’s going on in space (and let’s face it, most scientists don’t, either). However, you should learn what you can! Share this post by clicking the button below – spread the space knowledge.

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Here are two reasons high schools should support teaching philosophy.

1. It looks great on college applications. Colleges are looking for mature students who will buckle down and focus intensely four years—rather than 1.5, maybe 2 rustling together credits and a senior thesis. A (good) philosophy class offers students a kind of birds’-eye view on the whole of human knowledge, allowing them to carefully consider the overwhelming number of majors available to them in college, rather than haphazardly falling into one because the deadline is approaching.

2. Many, not all, philosophers claim to have been that student in high school who drastically underperformed and was always bored. Philosophy is boredom’s consolation. With the right teacher, truly bored students may find that intellectual excitement they need to reach their academic potential.

Universities and philosophy programs should also be embracing and promoting this movement. If more students in high school take philosophy, more will enroll in philosophy classes in college—and maybe even enjoy them, rather than commenting in their later years, “Yeah, I took a philosophy class; it was really interesting.” Furthermore, if more high schools taught philosophy, there would be more jobs for philosophers, who may steer undergraduates to philosophy courses in college, which in turn stimulates the applicant pool to graduate programs. This makes philosophy financially viable, encouraging bureaucratic university administrators to fund philosophy—another example of the grand circle of life.

Many high schools are already doing a wonderful job of integrating nuance and variety into the curriculum. They are teaching bioethics in science classes, CSI forensics, economics, and capital-investment classes, none of which I saw or could have imagined happening even a decade ago. However, something is still missing. We are showing our students how cool math and science can be, but at the heart of learning is a passion for knowledge, not simply a bag of tricks to impress our friends.  Let the kids into that world: teach them philosophy, or, even better, learn about philosophy with them!

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Today in society, most people nearly always expect love to fail. They believe that if they get too close, do too much, or fall too hard, there will be heartbreak right around the corner. If love always fails, how can we explain those few couples that have been together for 20 years plus? Most of us declare that they simply got lucky and that it could never happen to us. Well I beg to differ…

The problem with being in love starts within the self. Of course we hear many people say this, but when you’re in a relationship, the problems within yourself will resurface no matter how much you try to hide it, if not dealt with. The magic question then arises…”does true love exist within yourself”? The next question being, “if not, why is it so hard to love yourself”?

With most of us growing up in the burst of social media age, we find ourselves comparing ourselves to others instead of looking at who we are and liking what we see. Instead of dealing with our flaws,  it’s easier to go on Instagram or Facebook, Vine or YouTube, and simply turn who we are looking at, into who we want to be. We can all be our own kind of great if we were to put just as much effort into ourselves and what we put into the lives of others. If you’re different, embrace your difference. Feed off of the gifts that we were uniquely bestowed with and then you can truly become who we were always meant to be. Love, laugh, and become liberated knowing that you were made this way on purpose.

Before you go judging that special person in your life thinking he or she is too good to be true, trust your instincts, your mind, and your heart. You deserve JOY, so don’t sabotage your chance at something real by thinking you’re not good enough to receive it. True love DOES exist, but you must first love yourself enough to even take that first step. Don’t compare him or her to your past lovers, don’t dwell on the future, but just enjoy the present and who you are as an individual. After all, we were never created to conform. You are beautiful or handsome just the way you are, but let the evolution of yourself be your guide.

 

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While it is normal to occasionally feel sad, when a person has major depressive disorder, they experience a severely depressed mood that can remain for years at a time. This is often referred to as depression, which can interfere with daily functioning and cause distress for both the person with the disorder and their family. With an estimated 16 percent of adults suffering from depression, according to the National Institute of Mental Health, cases of depression are by no means isolated.

With everyone from doctors to therapists to herbal specialists chiming on the subject, reading more about depression can help both patients and caregivers make better decisions. If you are high in desire to learn but low on the wallet, there are options. To help out, I have gathered the below top 25 free and useful eBooks about depression. They are authored by everyone from licensed therapists to those who have suffered some type of depression.

Top Free and Useful eBooks About General Depression

  1. How to Survive the Loss of a Love
    Because there is nothing more saddening than the death of a loved one, stop here. This book by three professionals has been read by over two million people. All 67 parts are available to read with just a click and the part on Understanding Loss is a good introduction.
  2. How to Heal Depression
    Harold H. Bloomfield and Peter McWilliams return in this book on depression. Four parts include understanding depression, healing the brain, healing the mind, and continuing healing are all shared. You can also learn more on how St. John’s Wort is used in the treatment of depression.
  3. You Can’t Afford the Luxury of a Negative Thought
    Because everyone is susceptible to negative thought, not just those with depression, click here. The book is intended for people with any life threatening illness. Chapters include the disease, the cure, and even the three steps to positive thought.
  4. A Collection of Poems About Depression
    If you or someone you know are suffering from depression, it can be easy to feel alone. In this collected work, the author shares poems made in the 90’s when suffering from depression. Peter Stone shares about ten years’ worth of experience battling the disease.
  5. Cure Chronic Anxiety and Depression
    Think you may have either? Then check out this free eBook from Sarah Shikitao-Brown. Natural happiness is also a topic of the book.
  6. Help for Anxiety, Phobias, OCD, and Depression
    Because depression can also come with other mental health problems, have a read of this book. Terry Dixon gives insight into anxiety-related problems and how to deal with them. It also provides information that can be helpful for leading the reader toward a better understanding of the causes and cures for anxiety-based problems.
  7. Meditation and Depression
    Get an academic view of depression with a visit here. Willoughby B. Britton of the department of psychology at the University of Arizona is your author. Chapters are on a prelude to medication, the reversal of depression, the physiological effects of mindfulness, and much more.
  8. Understanding Depression
    Visit here for more of an online guide than traditional eBook. The folks at Help Guide feature basic information such as the signs, symptoms, causes, and help for those with depression. There are also loads of useful links on the topic.

Top Free and Useful eBooks About Psychology

  1. Online Self Help Psychology Book
    Licensed psychotherapist Thayer White authors this book for people with mental health changes in their lives. He argues that individuals can do 90 percent of therapy themselves. Chapters include creativity, weight loss, emotion, men and women, along with many other topics.
  2. Dream Psychology
    You don’t have to be an expert in psychology to recognize the name Sigmund Freud. One of the founders of the science authors this very book on the topic. Visit here to get it as HTML, Kindle, plain text, and more.
  3. Studies in the Psychology of Sex
    Is sexual frustration the cause or downsides to your depression? Then check out this free, popular choice from Havelock Ellis. There are several parts, all of which are available for free.
  4. Psychology and Achievement
    The thought of unfulfilled goals can be depressing to anyone. This free eBook by Warren Hilton examines this very thing. Wasted effort, wasted money, usefulness, and other topics are explored.
  5. Hierarchy of Needs
    Because everyone has several needs, see which are most important to you with a read of this book. Abraham Maslow is considered to be the father of Humanistic Psychology and author of this eBook. There is even a diagram of needs included which is often referred to in psychology.
  6. Classics in Psychology
    Get historical essays on the topic from 1855 to 1914. Many psychology students and experts often read this text as part of their studies. Emerging topics such as methodology, analyses, individual experiences, and more are all featured.
  7. Elements of Psychology
    Similar to the above, this text is often read by students and doctors of psychology. It was written at about 1923 and has been reconstructed for the modern day. Over 250 pages are available to read.
  8. The Conundrums of Psychology
    Sam Vaknin writes on the many problems of psychology. They include normal personality, the myth of mental illness, history of personality disorders, and many more. You can read the entire thing online or download from Scrib’d.
  9. Just Stop Having Problems, Stupid
    Sick of all the “psycho-babble?” So was Dr. Matt, a self-professed fake doctor who takes on realistic problems in a realistic way. Five outrageous chapters include “How to Compare Russell Crowe and Stone Phillips.”

Other Top Free and Useful eBooks About Depression

    1. Hypericum and Depression
      What is hypericum and how can it be used to treat depression? These and other questions are answered in this free eBook. It also includes summaries of medical studies done on the treatment.
    2. The Dark Side of Sleeping Pills
      We all may have turned to sleeping pills at one time or other. However, Dr. Daniel Kripke discusses them in detail and the risks associated with them. Better alternatives are also looked at.
    3. Brighten Your Life
      Dr. Kripke returns again in this free eBook. It is about how sleep can be used as a treatment for depression. How light is used in modern days takes center stage.
    4. A Book of Infinite Possibilities
      Melody Bass shares just what the title promises. She discusses how to focus on changing your thoughts, loving your life, and learning the art of trusting. Readers even stopped into comment on their approval of the book.
    5. Dream Interpretation as a Science
      Is a cigar a cigar? Your dreams can give you more insight to your depression or mental state than you think. Christina Sponias take on the topic in this free 86 page excerpt of her book.
    6. An Amateur’s Guide to Spirituality
      Could spirituality be a treatment for your depression, but you don’t know how? Then check out this guide from Ella Roberts to get the opinion of someone of the same mind set. She knows what is like to be lost spiritually and to ask the questions that need answering.
    7. Mother Teresa: A Biography
      Learn more about one of the most adored figures of our times. The book follows the journey of Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu from her humble Albanian birth to worldwide celebrity as Mother Teresa. All 174 pages are available as a PDF.
    8. 101 Motivational Quotes
      Finally, if you just need some inspiration, click here. Steven Grabek shares quotes from society’s greatest thinkers in this free eBook. It also tackles the loss of motivation and procrastination.

The above top 25 free and useful eBooks about depression are for educational and entertainment purposes only. Please consult a licensed physician or therapist if experiencing depression or before making changes to any medication plan.

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quran
• Kalima Tayyaiba is mentioned in Quran for 2 times.
• The word Quran means “read one”.
• 114 total number of Surah
• Surah means city of Refuge.
• 86 Makki Surah.
• 28 Madine Surah.
• 558 Rukus.
• Al-Baqrah is the longest Surah.
• Al- Kausar is the shortest Surah.
• Al-Nass is the last surah.
• 14 bows are in Quran.
• First bow occurs in 9th Para i.e Al-Inaam Surah.
• Al-Fatiha is the preface of the holy Quran.
• Five verses were revealed in the first wahy.
• Namaz commanded in Quran for 700 times.
• Al-Imran is the surah in which Hajj is commanded.
al-quran
• Al-Mudassar-2nd Revealed Surah.
• Al-Muzammil- 3rd Revealed Surah.
• Al-Tauba does not start with Bismillah.
• Al-Namal contains two Bismillahs.
• Three Surahs start with curse.
• 6666 is the number of Ayats.
• 29 total number of Mukata’t.
• Hazrat Usman was the first Hafiz of the Holy Quran.
• Hazrat Khalid Bin Saeed, the first writer of Wahy.
• Gap between first wahy and second wahy was 6 months.
• 12 Ghazawahs described in Holy Quran.
• Abdullah Ibn Abbas, the first commentator of the Quran and also known as interpreter of the Quran.
• In surah Al-Saf, Hoy prophet is addressed as Ahmed.
• Ghar-e-Sor is mentioned in Surah Al-Tauba.
• 4 Surhas start with Qul. (chkd)
• Hazrat Umar proposed the compilation of Holy Quran.
• Al- Nasr is known as Surah Widah.
• First annulled order of holy Quran was the transfer of Qibla.
• The word Islam occurs 6 times in the Quran.
• Abdul Malik Marwan applied the dots in the Holy Quran.
• Hajjaj bin yousuf applied diacritical points in Quran.
• 8 Siparas starts with Bismillah.
• 37 total number of surah in last parah.
• Al- Baqrah and Surah Al-Nissa is spread over 3 Parahs.
• Al-Falq and Al-Nas revealed at the same time.
• 3 Surah stats with “Ya Ayananabiyau”.
• City of Rome is mentioned in Holy Quran.
• Surah Yaseen is known as Heart of Quran.
• Suran Rehman is known as beauty of Quran.
• Tafseer Ibn Kaseer was written by Hafiz Ismaeed Bin Umar-Imam Ud Din.
• First revealed surah was Al Alaq, 96 in arrangement
• Complete revelation in 23 years.
• Subject of Holy Quran is Man.
• Last Surah reveled in Al-Nasr.
• Risalat means to convey message.
• 25 prophets mentioned in holy Quran.
• Holy Quran consist 105684 words and 3236700 letters.
• Longest Ayat of Holy Quran is Ayatul Kursi.
• 6 Surah start with the name of prophets.
• Surah maryam wholly revealed for a woman.
• In Bani Israeel and Al-Najaf the event of Miraj is explained.
• Last revelation descended on 3rd Rabi-ul Awal and it was written by Abi- Bin Kab. (chk)
• Language of Divine Books.
• Taurat Hebrew
• Injil Siriac
• Zubur Siriac
• Holy Quran Arabic.
• Taurat was the first revealed book.
• Holy Quran was revealed in 22y 5m 14 days.
• There are 7 stages in Holy Quran.
• Abdullah Ibn Abbas is called as leader of commentators.
• Apollo 15 placed the copy of the Holy Quran on the moon.
• Tarjama-ul-Qu’ran is written by Abdul-Kalam Azad.
• Theodore Bailey in 1143 translated Holy Quran in Latin, for the first time.
• First Muslim interpreter of Quran in English is Khalifa Abdul Hakeem.
• Shah Waliullah translated Holy Quran in Persian and Shah Rafiuddin in Urdu in 1776.
• Hafiz Lakhvi translated Holy Quran in Punjabi.
• Ross translated the Holy Quran in to English.
• Surah Alaq was revealed on 18th Ramzan.(contradictory)
• Number of Aayats in al-Bakar is 286.
• Longest Makki Surah is Aaraf.
• Second longest Surah is Ashrah/Al-Imran.
• Surah Kausar has 3 Aayats.
• First Surah compilation wise is Surah Fatiha.
• Fatiha means opening.
• Fatiha contains 7 aayats.
• Fatiha is also called Ummul Kitab.
• First Surah revealed in Madina was Surah Fatiha.
• Surah Fatiha revealed twice-in Makkah & Madina.
• Angles mentioned in Quran are 7.
• Meaning of Aayat is Sign.
• Meaning of Hadith is to take.
• Stone mentioned in Quran is ruby (Yaakut).
• First Sajda occurs in 9th Para, Al-Inaam Surah.
• Longest Surah (al-Bakr) covers 1/12th of Quran.
• Madni Surahs are generally longer.
• Madni Surahs consist of1/3rd of Quran.
• Makki Surahs consist of2/3rd of Quran.
• Surah Ikhlas is 112 Surah of Quran.
• First complete Madni Surah is Baqarah.
• Names of Quran mentioned in Quran is 55.
• Surahs named after animals are 4 in number.
• Namal means Ant.
• Surah Inaam means Camel.
• Surah Nahl means Honey bee.
• Surah Ankaboot means spider.
• The major part of Quran is revealed at night-time.
• Generally aayats of Sajida occur in Makki Surahs.
• 10 virtues are blessed for recitation of one word of Quran.
• Surah Anfal means Cave.
• In Naml two bismillah occur (2nds one is at aayat no:30)
• Surah Kahf means the cave.
• Muzammil means Wrapped in garments.
• Kausar means Abundance.

• Nasr means Help.

• Ikhlas means Purity of faith.
• Falak means Dawn.
• Un-Nass means Mankind.
• Al-alq means Clot of blood.
• Alm Nashrah means Expansion.
• Uz-zukhruf means Ornaments.
• Surah Rahman is in 27th Para.
• Bride of Quran is Rahman Surah.
• Surah Yasin is in 22nd and 23rd Para.
• Present shape of quran is Taufeeqi.
• Quran is the greatest miracle of Prophet.
• Word surah has occurred in Quran 9 times.
• First seven aayats of quran are called Tawwal.
• The alphabet Alf comes most of times and Alf, Zuwad Alphabet comes least number of times.
• Quran is written in Prose & Poetry.
• Quran is also regarded as a manual of Science.
• Surah Alq is both Makki and Madni.
• Name of Muhammad is mentioned in Quran for 4 times.
• Adam is mentioned in Surah Aaraf.
• first Sindhi translation of Quran by Aakhund Azizullah Halai
• Torat means light.
• Zaboor means Pieces/ Book written in big letters.
• Injeel means Good news.
• 99 number of aayats describe Khatam-e- Nabuwat.
• Command against Juva & amputation of hands came 8th A.H
• Laws about orphanage revealed in 3 A.H.
• Laws about Zina revealed in 5 A.H.
• Laws about inheritance revealed in 3 A.H.
• In 4th A.H wine was prohibited.
• The order of Hijab for women reveled in 4th A.H.
• Ablution made obligatory in 5th A.H.
• In Surah Al-Nisa the commandment of Wuzu is present.
• Procedure of ablution is present in Surah Maidah.
• In 4 A.H Tayammum was granted.
• Interest was prohibited in 8th A.H.
• The order of Hijiab reveled in 8th Hijrah. (chk)
• During ghazwa Banu Mustaliq the command of tayamum was reveled.
• Quran recited in Medina firstly in the mosque Nabuzdeeq.
• Quran verse abrogating a previous order is called Naasikh.
• First man to recite Quran in Makkah: Abdullah bin Masood.
• Forms of revelation granted to Prophet were 3 (wahi,Kashf,dream)
• First method of revelation of Quran Wahi.
• Kashf means Vision.
• Initially Quran was preserved in memory form.
• After Umar’s death, copy of quran was passed on to Hafsa.
• Only Sahabi mentioned in Quran Zaid bin Haris.(surah ahzab)
• Paradise is mentioned in Quran for150 times.
• Section of Paradise in which Prophets will dwell Mahmood.
• Doors of Hell are 7.
• Subterranean part of hell is Hawia.
• Number of angles of hell 19.
• Gate-keeper of hell Malik.
• Gate-keeper of heaven Rizwan.
• Place of heaven at which people whose good deeds equal bad deeds will be kept in Aaraf.
• A tree in hell emerging from its base is Zakoon.
• Name of the mountain of hell is Saud.
• Heaven on earth was built by Shadad.
• The word Islam has been used at 92 places in the holy quran.
• First revelation written by Khalid bin Saeed
• Last wahi written by Abi Ibn Kaaf.
• Last wahi came on3rd Rabiul Awal 11 A.D
• In 15th Para the event of Miraj is mentioned.
• Except the name of Maryam the name of no other woman has come explicitly in the Quran.
• Iblees will not be punished with fire but with cold.
• Iblees’s refusal to prostrate before man is mentioned in Kuran for 9 times.
• Iblees means “disappointed one”.
• Al-Kausar relates to death of Qasim and Hazrat Abdullah
• Jibrail came 24 000 times into the court of the Prophet.
• Quran has been translated into fifty languages to date.
• If a woman marries the second time, she will be in Jannah with the second husband. (Hadith)
• The Earth and the Heaven were created by Allah in 6 days, it is described in Surah Yunus.
• Zaid bin Thabit collected the Quran in the form of Book.
• Tarjumanul Quran Abdullah bin Abbas.
• In Surah Muzzamil verse 73 reading quran slowly and clearly is ordained.
• 4 Mosque mentioned in Holy Quran.
• Jibraeel is referred in Quran as Ar-rooh.
• In Quran Rooh-al-Qudus is Jibrael it means holy spirit.
• In Quran Rooh-al-Ameen is Jibrael.
• Incharge of Provisions is Mekaeel.
• The angel who was sent to Prophets as a helper against enemies of Allah was Jibraeel.
• The Angel who sometimes carried Allah’s punishment for His disobedients was Jibraeel.
• Jibrael is mentioned in Quran for three times.
• Old Testament is the Torait.
• New Testament is Injeel.
• Psalms is Zuboor.
• Gospal is Injeel.
• Prophet is called Farqaleet in Injeel.
• Taharat-e-Sughra is Wuzu.
• There are two types of Farz.
• Saloos-ul-Quran is Surah Ikhlas.
• Aroos-ul-Quran i.e bride of Quran is Al-Rehman.
• Meaning of Baqarah: The Goat
• In Surah Waqiya the word Al-Quran ul Hakeem is used.
• First Wahi was revealed on 17 Ramzan.
• Two Surahs are named with one letter heading.
• Surah Baqara & Ale Imran are known as Zuhraveen.
• Wine is termed in Quran as Khumar.
• The first authority for the compilation of Ahadis is .
• Sahih Bukhari contains 7397 ahadis.

 


إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ
فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ
إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ

Inna aAtayna kal kawthar
Fasalli li rabbika wanhar
Inna shani-aka huwal abtar

Verily We have given to you the abundance
So pray to your Lord and sacrifice
Indeed your enemy is the one who is cut off

Chapter al-Kawthar (The Abundance) is the smallest chapter in the Qur’an consisting of only three lines. From a linguistic, literary, theological, rational and ideological point of view this chapter has the utmost significance. Being the smallest chapter in the Qur’an it is often cited by those who are involved in some form of polemic. This is due to the famous challenge of the Qur’an. The Qur’an states:

“If you (mankind) are in doubt concerning what We revealed to Our servant, than bring a chapter like it….” Qur’an 2:23

Muslim and non-Muslim exegetes have commented that these verses, and other verses similar to it, are an open challenge to humanity to try and match the literary and linguistic feature/nature of the divine text. It is not surprising that this chapter is often quoted and its significance highlighted by those propagating the Islamic way of life.

This chapter is used as a proof of the Islamic creed. If someone can meet the challenge the text cannot be from the Divine. However if the challenge can not be met, even though there are a finite set of literary and linguistic ‘tools’ at their disposal; then the question of authorship has great implications.

The Qur’an was revealed approximately 1400 years ago and for this amount of time the challenge has remained. This however does not mean that no one has attempted to match the literary and linguistic style/feature/nature of the text. Throughout the centuries thinkers, poets, theologians and literary critics have attempted to challenge the Qur’an. Some of these challengers include Musaylamah, Ibn Al-Mukaffa‘, Abu’l-’Ala Al-Marri, Yahya b. Al-Hakam al-Ghazal, Sayyid ‘Ali Muhammad, Ibn al-Rawandi, Bassar bin Burd, Sahib Ibn ‘Abbad, Abu’l – ‘Atahiya and the contemporary Christian Missionaries who developed the ‘True Furqan’.

Without going into an analysis of why Muslim and non-Muslim scholars have agreed that those who have attempted to challenge the Qur’an have failed, the summary below should suffice:

Even though the challengers have had the same set of ‘tools’, which are the 29 letters, finite grammatical rules and the blue print of the challenge – which is the Qur’an itself; they have failed to:

1. Replicate the Qur’ans literary form
2. Match the unique linguistic genre of the Qur’an
3. Select and arrange words like that of the Qur’an.
4. Select and arrange particles like that of the Qur’an.
5. Match the Qur’ans phonetic superiority.
6. Equal the frequency of rhetorical devices
7. Match the level of informativity
8. Equal the Qur’ans conciseness and flexibility

For example if we take Musaylamah’s attempt to challenge the Qur’an,

The elephant.
What is the elephant?
And who shall tell you what is the elephant?
He has a ropy tail and a long trunk.
This is a [mere] trifle of our Lord’s creations.

it can be clearly seen, with reference to the Arabic original, that the style of his speech is in the kahin style of rhymed prose. It lacks informativity and the words and phrases that have been used can be replaced with words that will express greater meaning and produce more eloquent discourse. In other words from a literary and stylistics point of view, this challenge fails.

In light of the above what makes the Qur’an, or in this case, what makes the shortest chapter in the Qur’an inimitable? To start, below is a summary of chapter al-Kawthar’s literary and linguistic features:

1. Unique Literary Form
2. Unique Linguistic Genre
3. Abundance of rhetorical devices/features:
– Emphasis
– Multiple Meaning
– Iltifaat – Grammatical shift
– Word order and Arrangement
– Ellipsis
– Conceptual Relatedness (Intertextuality)
– Intensification
– Choice of words & Particles
– Phonetics
– Semantically Orientated Repetition
– Intimacy
– Exaggeration
– Rebuke and contempt
– Conciseness
– Flexibility
– Prophesy/Factual

Unique Literary Form

This chapter like all the other chapters in the Qur’an can only be described as a unique literary form. This means that this chapter can not be explained as any of the known literary forms of the Arabic language.

The Arabic language can be categorised into ‘Prose’ and ‘Poetry’. Arabic Prose being further grouped into rhymed prose (saj’) and continuous speech (mursal). Arabic poetry differs from Arabic Prose as it ends with a rhyme and is distinguished by its metrical rhythmical patterns which are called the ‘al-Bihar.’ There are 16 al-Bihar which all Arabic poetry, pre and post Islamic, are based upon.

This chapter is unique as its internal rhythm can not be described as any of the al-Bihar and its end rhyme and literary bonds differ from any Arabic prose. Therefore its literary form is unlike any known literary forms of the Arabic language.

Unique Linguistic Genre

Like all other chapters in the Qur’an, chapter al-Kawthar marry’s together rhetorical and cohesive elements in every sentence. This is a unique use of the Arabic language as Arabic texts mostly employ cohesive elements in every sentence. Below is an analysis of this chapter in light of the above:

This chapter can be split into two sentences:

[1] Verily We have given to you the abundance so pray to your Lord and sacrifice

[2] Indeed your enemy is the one who is cut off

In the first sentence the rhetorical aspects are (these will be explained later):

Emphasis/Intensification
Choice of Word & Particle
Rhythm and Sound
Iltifaat (grammatical shift)
Multiple meaning
Conceptual Relatedness (intertextuality)

The cohesive device used in this sentence is the ‘fa’ particle (which is causative) and links the structure ‘Verily We have given to you the abundance’ with the structure ‘pray to your Lord and sacrifice’.

In the second sentence the rhetorical aspects are:

Choice of Word and Particle
Rhythm and Sound
Semantically Orientated Repetition
Confinement/exclusivity
Rebuke and Contempt
Prophesy/Factual
Word order and Arrangement

The cohesive device used in this sentence is what is known as ‘Zero’ cohesion. This is a form of cohesion where a cohesive particle like waw (and) or fa’ (so) is not used. The cohesive element is easily understood via the readers’ linguistic intuition. The whole structure relates to the preceding sentence, if it was not apparent then a cohesive particle would have to be used. The way the Qur’an achieves cohesion in this sentence can also be seen as a rhetorical feature, not using a cohesive particle in this case creates conciseness in language; any needless or repetitive lexical items are removed. If the relationship between one sentence and another can be understood without the use of additional words or particles then they should not be used, as this achieves brevity and eloquent discourse. This is similar to the chapter al-Ihklas (Sincerity).

Abundance of Rhetorical Devices/Features

This chapter like all the other chapters in the Qur’an has an abundance of rhetorical features and devices. According to Abu Musa, Abdul Raof and others the Qur’an has a greater use of rhetorical devices and features than any other text; past or present. Below are some examples of how chapter al-Kawthar achieves this ‘sea of rhetoric’. What is meant by rhetoric here is what is known in the Arabic tradition as ‘balagha’, this encompasses the use of language to please and persuade; expression in the best verbal forms, eloquence and interrelation between style, structure and meaning. The list below is not exhaustive but sheds some light into this chapter’s unique use of language.

Emphasis & Choice of Pronoun

إِنَّا

[Verily, We] This structure is emphatic (harf al-tawkid); also the plural is used to indicate power, certainty, ability, greater quantity or sometimes to stress the status and greatness (li-ta’zim al-mutakallim aw ihtimaman bi-dhikr rabbika wa ta’ziman). This is an apt choice of pronoun as its persuasive force can not be matched by any other pronoun. The effect is “The creator, who has power to do anything has indeed given you….”

Word Choice

أَعْطَيْن

[A’Tayn] This term as been used instead of ‘Aataaina’ because of a subtle difference. The difference as defined by Ibn Manzoor in his Lisan al-‘Arab differs conceptually. The Qur’anic choice indicates ‘to hand over with one’s own hand’ whereas the non Qur’anic selection does not provide this meaning. This choice of word is apt as it strengthens the sentence emphasizing the surety of giving, ability, greatness, power and intimacy (to console and strengthen the Prophet).

According to Naishapuri this term also indicates the extra notion of ownership with it.

The verb has also been used in the past tense which indicates that is has already happened and makes it definitive. This further accentuates the meaning of surety, power and greatness. This also expresses certainty of a promise, in this case the Prophet will have al-Kawthar.

Word Choice

الْكَوْثَرَ

[al-Kawthar] The root stem for this word are the letters kaaf, tha and ra (=kathara). This signifies plentiful, multitude, overflowing, rich, unstinting and unending. Other derivations of this root include:

Katha-ratun: Multitude
Katheerun: Much, many, numerous
Ak’tharu: More numerous (emphasis)
Kath-thara: To multiply
Takathur: Act of multiplying
Is-thak-thara: To wish for much

Al-Qurtubi states that the Arabs used ‘Kawthar’ to denote anything which is great in quantity or value. This word can not be replaced with another, as its meaning can not be matched equally with any other Arabic word. Ibn Abbas mentioned that the al-Kawthar includes all types of good. (Ibn Abbas Tanwir al-Miqbas: this is of doubtful origin. However this is also the opinion of Sa‘id Ibn Jubayr, ‘Ikramah, Qatadah and Mujahid.)

Word Arrangement

The placement of al-Kawthar is an attribute; plentiful/abundance. However this word has been placed at the end of the verse with no word after to be attributed to it, as al-Qurtubi points out, this indicates that the Prophet has been given an abundance of everything. The Scholars state that if God had bestowed one thing in great multitude then that would have been mentioned, however due to giving the Prophet an abundance of everything nothing is mentioned to indicate everything or many things. Also within the science of eloquence and rhetoric mentioning all the things would be superfluous and not a good use of language.

Multiple Meaning

The word al-Kawthar has been given multiple meanings by the scholars. These meanings include:

1. That river of paradise from which rivers flow.
2. The fountain on the Day of Judgement from which the Prophet will quench the thirst of his people.
3. His prophethood.
4. The Qur’an, no other divine book is as comprehensive as the Qur’an.
5. The way of life called Islam.
6. The multitude of his companions, no other prophet had that many companions
7. Elevated status. No one is more researched, more mentioned and more praised than the prophet Muhammad.
8. It is multitude of goodness.

Grammatical Shift: Iltifaat

إِنَّا …ِرَبِّكَ ْ

[…to your Lord]. Iltifaat is a unique rhetorical and stylistic device employed by the Qur’an. The Qur’an is the only text to have the highest frequency of grammatical shifts and related rhetorical features. In this Surah, there is a change from the first person plural [We in innaa] to the second person […your Lord]. This change is not an abrupt shift; it is calculated and highlights the intimate relationship between God and the Prophet. The use of ‘We’ as described above is used to emphasize the majesty, power and ability of God whereas ‘Your Lord’ is used to indicate and emphasize intimacy, closeness and love; this is an apt use as the preceding concepts are about prayer, sacrifice and worship. [So to your Lord pray and sacrifice]. Furthermore, the purpose of this chapter is also to console the Prophet, using intimate language enhances the psycholinguistic effect.

Conceptual Relatedness (intertextuality)

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ

[So to your Lord pray and sacrifice]

The ‘fa’ (so) particle is sababi (causative) this indicates a recommendation to the Prophet to be thankful for the abundance he has been given. This conceptually relates to tawhid (oneness of God). The Oneness of God is the central theme in the Qur’an which permeates every chapter. The Arabs at the time of revelation would worship, pray and sacrifice to other ‘deities’ rather than God. Therefore this statement is not only a logical and rational concept i.e. to be thankful as a result of being the beneficiary of abundant good, rather it is to show the difference to the polytheists who would offer worship and sacrifice to idols. This relates to a major theme in the Qur’an, the oneness of God.

There are other verses that related to this particular verse, these include:

Say: “Verily, my Salah, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of all that exists. He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.” Qur’an 6:162-163

And do not eat from what Allah’s Name has not been pronounced over, indeed that is Fisq (transgression). Qur’an 6:121

It can be clearly seen that chapter al-Kawthar conceptually relates to other verses and chapters within the Qur’an. This feature from a linguistics point of view is called thematic intertextuality.

Word Choice

وَانْحَرْ

[Wanhar] The word ‘wanhar’ is from the root na, ha and ra (= nahara) which means to sacrifice an animal by cutting or piercing the jugular vein. The word ‘wanhar’ also has the meaning of standing facing Qibla for Salah (prayer). It also means raising hands while reciting Takbir (God is the Greatest).

This word is the most apt word for the meaning of sacrifice as it has multi layered meanings which are most appropriate for the ideas and concepts that are trying to be delivered in this structure. Surely it is only out of God’s Greatness that al-Kawthar is given to the Prophet and it should be received with thanks and sacrifice, which are manifested in Islam via sacrificing animals, prayer and recitation of Gods names (dhikr).

If anyone was to scan the Arabic language for a word that has such expression they would not be able to find one.

Emphasis and Choice of Particle

إِنَّ

[Inna] ‘Indeed’ is used to emphasize and accentuate that it is the enemies of the Prophet that are cut off. The effect is ‘you enemies are certainly the ones you are cut off’.

Semantically Orientated Repetition & Rhythm

إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ
فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ
إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ

The repetition of the second person (ka = ‘you’ x 3) is singling out/focusing/making exclusive the Prophet as the target of the speaker. The emphasis (iqrar) is a stylistic move to fortify and strengthen the Prophet. The consistent use of the second person establishes continuity in the verse and generates rhythm. Moreover, there is a juxtaposition between the iltifaat of the speaker (al-mutakallim = God) with the fixity/repetition of ka in the second person (mukhatab = Prophet).

Rebuke and Contempt

إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الاٌّبْتَرُ

[It is your enemy that is cut off]

The use of the word ‘abtar’ (cut off) is most suitable as it was a word used by the enemies of the Prophet against him. This structure indicates that in reality the enemies of the Prophet are the ones who are cut off i.e. have acquired great loss. This is accentuated by the preceding two verses which are an intense, emphatic and exaggerated use of language to show that all good has been given to the Prophet. The contrast between the persuasive preceding structures and the use of the word ‘abtar’ gives the word more power and intensity.

Word Arrangement

إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الاٌّبْتَرُ

[abtar] This chapter uses the insult the enemies of the Prophet used to enhance the communicative effect. This word in the Arabic tradition means `Leave him, for indeed he is a man who is cut off having no descendants. So when he dies he will not be remembered.’

This return of insult is not merely done as a form of ‘tit for tat’ rather it is eloquently arranged as the last word used in the chapter to stress the meaning. The effect is, that it is they who are really cut off as the word ‘abtar’ is placed right at the end of the chapter to allude to this fact. There are no words after ‘abtar’ just like no remembrance and no offspring to continue someone’s lineage (Note: This is a linguistic indication and not a fact).

Choice of Particle: Confinement/Exclusivity

هُوَ الاٌّبْتَرُ

[…that is cut off]. The alif lam (a and l) after the ‘huwa’ denotes confinement and exclusivity (designates a specific person or thing i.e. the enemies of the Prophet). For the context of this chapter, the definite article (al-) may designate either definition (li ’l-ta’rif) i.e. refer to a specific person/thing or it may designate ‘familiarity’ (li ’l-‘ahd). The effect here is that the enemies specifically and not the Prophet who are really cut off. Such minutiae changes the power of the structure, which is a great use of language.

Rhythm and Sound

The Qur’an has been described as an “inimitable symphony” whose rhythm moves men to tears and ecstasy. The Qur’an not only selects the most apt words and phrases, but also achieves a unique sound within a unique literary form. This chapter has the following verse end rhyme:

Kawthar
…nhar
…tar

What is noticeable about the rhyme in this chapter is that the end rhyme of the last two verses resonate the sound of the word ‘al-kawthar’, what is meant here is as if the sound of the word ‘al-kawthar’ is extended to support the overall theme that the Prophet has really been given an abundance. It is as though the word ‘al-kawthar’ has been exaggerated and phonetically elongated to further highlight its meaning and enhance the overall persuasive power of the structure. Please also see ‘Semantically Orientated Repetition & Rhythm’ above.

Prophesy/Factual

An interesting observation of the chapter is that it also is factual and accurate. At the time when this chapter was revealed the Prophet was in one of the lowest points in his life. His enemies were the ones who seemed to have prosperity and power. However, the reality soon changed. The Prophet turned out to be the most successful Prophet both as a man delivering a message and as a statesman. His enemies eventually lost their power.

However the Qur’an used the word ‘abtar’ here, this describes the Prophet gaining power and success but it should also indicate something more specific for it to be appreciated as a factual description and a form of prophesy.

There are major opinions of the reason for this revelation. The first opinion is that Al-`As bin Wa’il would say, whenever the Prophet would be mentioned (in his presence), `Leave him, for indeed he is a man who is cut off having no descendants. So when he dies he will not be remembered.’ Therefore this chapter was revealed to console the Prophet.

The other opinion is that Abu Lahab, another leading member of the Quraish, exlaimed `Muhammad has been cut off (i.e., from progeny) tonight.’ when the Prophet’s son passed away.

What makes this chapter a prophesy and factual is the events that took place after this revelation.

With regards to Abu Lahab he died of a form of plague and was not buried by his sons until one the leading tribe leaders noticed how his body was rotting. His sons eventual placed the remains of the body on a wall and threw stones on it. Abu Lahab had lost power, honour and dignity.

‘As bin Wa’il faced similar humiliation. His sons had converted to Islam thus becoming his enemies, as he was an active enemy of Islam. Furthermore his sons did not take any inheritance from him. So in reality his lineage was broken.

This is Prophetic and factual.

Please read the exegesis and the historical background of this chapter to find out more details.

Conclusion

This chapter is truly unique and inimitable.

This chapter has less than 15 words yet briefly analysing this chapter more than 15 rhetorical devices and related features have been found. These features are not just mediocre attempts to please and persuade, rather they are sublime features that if removed or altered will distort the impact and communicative effect of the text.

Not one feature or any words can be changed or improved upon.

It doesn’t stop there. In addition to the above this chapter is structured within its own literary form and linguistic genre.

How can a human being create a unique literary form and linguistic genre, select the most apt words placed in the most perfect arrangement, produce a unique rhythm and semantically orientated sounds, provide factual prophetic information in concise eloquent expression with an abundance of rhetorical devices, in less than 15 words?

It was no wonder that those best placed to challenge the Qur’an failed.

This article intends to provoke further questions and sufficiently stimulate the reader to research further, particularly the question of authorship of the Qur’an. At the heart of that question lies only a limited set of possible answers. The Qur’an can only have come from an Arab, a non-Arab, the Prophet – if you believe he had a mastery of Arabic better than the Arabs of his time – or, as Muslims suggest, the Creator, which only counts as a possible source if you believe in its existence (that is of course a subject unto itself but an important pre-requisite).

From the above evidence the Qur’an is acknowledged to be written with the utmost beauty and purity of Language. It is incontestably the standard of the Arabic tongue, inimitable by any human pen, and because it still exists today, it insists on as a permanent miracle sufficient to convince the world of its divine origin. If the Qur’an was written by Muhammad, why were not Arab scholars and linguists able to rival the Qur’an?

 

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New research from the Aerospace Institute of the University of Stuttgart in Germany supports the theory that water has a memory—a claim that could change our whole way of looking at the world. Does water have memory? Can it retain an “imprint” of energies to which it has been exposed? This theory was first proposed by the late French immunologist Dr. Jacques Benveniste in a controversial article published in 1988 in Nature as a way of explaining how homeopathy works. Benveniste’s theory has continued to be championed by some and disputed by others. The video clip below, from the Oasis HD Channel, shows some fascinating recent experiments with water “memory” from the Aerospace Institute of the University of Stuttgart in Germany. The results with the different types of flowers immersed in water are particularly evocative.

If Benveniste is right, just think what that might mean. More than 70 percent of our planet is covered in water. The human body is made of 60 percent water; the brain, 70 percent; the lungs, nearly 90 percent. Our energies might be traveling out of our brains and bodies and into those of other living beings of all kinds through imprints on this magical substance. The oceans and rivers and rains might be transporting all manner of information throughout the world.

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